Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The Lamb and the Tyger Analysis William Blake was an 18th century visionary, poet, mystic, and artist. Blakes romantic style of writing allowed him to create contrasting views as those in The Lamb and The Tyger. From a young age Blake used his imagination that was frowned upon and unfortunately was never greatly appreciated during his lifetime. William Blake believed that it was the chief function of art to reveal the truth of the spiritual world by liberating imagination (Bowman 53). It wasnt until after Blakes death that his work finally received some attention. Known as a romantic, Blake continued throughout his writing to radically question religion and politics; He was very critical of the church, putting forth the effort to attack and question it. Blake put his own insight into his poems to raise the public awareness in a personal attempt to seek the truth. Perhaps he is most famous for his creative and simplistic Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience that influenced the other Romantic poets with themes of good and evil, heaven and hell, and knowledge and innocence. With regards to religion, William Blake opposed the views of the Christian church and its standardized system. Blake, having more of a spiritual position than a religious one, considered himself as a monistic Gnostic, meaning that he believed what saved a persons soul was not faith but knowledge (Harris 1). Blakes view of religion was considered blasphemous, and in his works he was concerned with the character of individual faith than with the institution of the Church, its role in politics, and its effects on society and the individual mind (SparkNotes Editors 1). Blakes The Lamb and The Tyger is more suggestive to the nature of God. The idea is that the same God who made the lamb also made the tiger, so unless it is suggested that God created evil, then the tiger must not be evil. The fact that the same God created both the lamb and tiger suggest that they just represent two different sides of God: Two different aspects of existence. Blakes perception of good and evil isnt just one extreme to the other, instead, the ambiguity of evil isnt evil; it is just the other side of good. Blake technically didnt believe in a dichotomy, the division into two usually contradictory parts or opinions. Blake portrays his argument that a human being cannot be completely good or completely evil. This trait does not exist within human beings, and therefore does not exist in God. The other writers and minds of the 18th century were mainly deists, the belief based solely on reason. They did not show interest in the nature of God as Blake did, instead, reason was their god. In the poem The Lamb, William Blake incorporates his unique style through the use of religious symbolism, creative lines, and simple patterns. The Lamb was a part of a series of poems called the Songs of Innocence that was published in 1789. Poems that were more simplistic in style and nature became more contrition and prophetic in Songs of Experience. Through simplistic structure, he chose the narrator of a child, as in this poem, told through childlike eyes, speaking of the innocence in all of human life, and that the lamb is Christ, marveling over Gods creations. The dramatic perspectives and continual allusiveness of the lyrics in The Lamb have shown to be a key factor in Blakes writing and have been interpreted and reinterpreted by critics and readers ever since Blakes death. Blake utilizes his rhetoric genius by symbolically expressing the appearance of the lamb to that of the nature of God. Within the poem, Blake brings up an interesting concept by stating, He is called by thy name / For he calls himself a Lamb, the lamb not only suggest innocence and the meaning of life, but at the same time conveys the theme that Christ is the lamb (Blake 662). The poem comments on how he is meek and he is mild, thus giving God the characteristics of goodness and purity (Blake 662). This gives a varying contrast to Blakes poem The Tyger as it advocates the speculation of evil. William Blakes, The Tyger, is the poetic counterpart to the Lamb of Innocence from his previous work, Songs of Innocence, thus creating the expression of innocence versus experience What immortal hand or eye / Dare frame thy fearful symmetry (Blake 770). The Tyger is part of the continued series of lyrics titled Songs of Experience that was published in 1794, as a response to the Songs of Innocence. The Songs of Experience are interpreted as the child, conveyed in Songs of Innocence, matures to adulthood and is molded by the harsh experiences and negative forces that reality has on human life, thus shows the destructiveness of the tiger. Blake utilizes his deceptively complex ideas, symbolism, and his allusiveness to portray the essence of evil in The Tyger. Blake uses tyger instead of tiger because it refers to any kind of wild, ferocious cat. The symbolism of the hammer, chain, furnace, and anvil all portray the image of the blacksmith, one of the main central themes in this poem ( Blake 769). William Blake personifies the blacksmith to God, the creator, and Blake himself. The Tyger is about having your reason overwhelmed at once by the beauty and horror of the natural world (Friedlander 1). When the stars threw down their spears / And waterd heaven with their tears (Blake 770). For Blake, the stars represent cold reason and objective science (Friedlander 1). In retrospect, the creation of the tiger represents transcendent mystery and direct reference to the lamb Did he who made the Lamb make thee (Blake 770). The Lamb and the Tyger are polar opposites of each other, one representing the fear of God and the other representing faith or praise of God through nature. As a child one is more like the lamb, innocent and more pure, and as they mature they earn their stripes and become aged and mature by societal tendencies of life like the tiger. The irony in the Songs of Innocence in contrast with the Songs of Experience is that they are opposites but seem to bounce off one another. They both have the same creator, both God and Blake, and suggest morals of good and evil. They are each on the extreme ends of the spirituality spectrum and in the middle is humanity, but you cant have one without the other. In order to have good you have to balance it out with evil, in a sense where good isnt just good, it is the other side of evil, and where evil is the other side of good.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Alexander the Great Alexander the Great was king of the Macedonians and one of the greatest generals in history. As a student of the Greek philosopher Aristotle, Alexander was embedded with lasting interests in philosophy, politics and warfare. As king, he settled problems by immediate action, making quick decisions and taking great risks. His armies overcame these risks by sheer force and by the ingenious tactics instilled in them by Alexander. He and his armies conquered the Persian Empire, which stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to India and formed much of what was then considered the civilized world. Through his conquests, Alexander helped spread Greek ideas, customs and laws throughout Asia and Egypt and adopted a uniform currency system to promote trade and commerce. He thus spread the rich Hellenistic culture enjoyed by the Greeks throughout the world. Alexander had a dream of the brotherhood of mankind where every person shared a common language, currency and loyalty, but he was unable to see his dream through due to an illness that claimed his life at the young age of 33.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Alexander was born in 356 B.C. He was born in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia. He was the son of Philip II, king of Macedonia, and of Olympias, a princess of Epirus. At the age of 13, Aristotle was hired to be Alexander’s private tutor. Aristotle inspired interests of politics, other races of people and countries, plants and animals, and a great love for literature in Alexander (“Overview of Alexander the Great.'; 1). He was an outstanding athlete and excelled in every sport of his time (Durant 538). In 338 B.C., at the age of 18, Alexander led the cavalry of his father’s army in the Battle of Chaeronea, which brought Greece under Macedonian control. At the age of 20, Alexander’s father was murdered by one of his bodyguards, and Alexander succeeded the throne as king of Macedonia. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã After Alexander’s father died, some Greek cities under Macedonian rule revolted. In 335 B.C. Alexander attacked the city of Thebes, storming its walls and destroying every building, except the temples and the house of the poet Pindar. His army sold the 30,000 inhabitants of Thebes into slavery or killed them. Alexander’s actions against Thebes discouraged rebellion by the o... ...me seriously ill again. This time, the disease plus the effects of several battle wounds would be enough to claim his life at the age of 32 on June 10. Alexander and his armies conquered the Persian Empire, which stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to India and formed much of what was then considered the civilized world. Through his conquests, Alexander helped spread Greek ideas, customs and laws throughout Asia and Egypt and adopted a uniform currency system to promote trade and commerce. He established cities like Alexandria everywhere he went to help maintain rule and reduce corruption, as well as to promote learning and to encourage commerce and trade throughout the world. He established Greek as the uniform language and brought different cultures together through marriages of his own and others just like his. He brought the world together to promote his idea of the brotherhood of mankind and had plans to reorganize his government and explore the seas around his empire. Alexander the Great accomplished all of this in just 33 years. After his death, the cities of his empire were split between his leading generals who mostly foug ht amongst themselves for control of the empire.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Scene i: The play opens in the dead of night on the walls of Elsinore Castle. Gloom, uncertainty and anxiety hang over the kingdom of Denmark, the first words spoken coming as the sentinel's challenge, "Who's there?" In short order we learn from the guard of the night watch that the long-time King of Denmark, "Old Hamlet" or "Ur-Hamlet," died mysteriously just two months earlier, that his brother, Claudius, has taken the throne, and that Claudius has married the dead king's wife, Queen Gertrude. The members of the watch, including Prince Hamlet's loyal friend Horatio, are further alarmed over the recent appearance of a ghost who resembles Hamlet's late father, and they plan to tell Hamlet about this disturbing apparition. (Jump to the text of Act I, Scene i) Scene ii: The play now shifts to the royal court of King Claudius and his new wife, Queen Gertrude, as we first see Hamlet's uncle dealing capably with affairs of state. In this, he is advised by his chief counselor, Polonius, and the King has a cordial exchange with his minister's son, Laertes. Hamlet, however, remains in the background, a surly figure muttering resentful asides. Claudius rejects Hamlet's request to return to college at Wittenberg, and urges him to cease his "unmanly" mourning for his father. When the royal entourage departs, Hamlet speaks a soliloquy about his resentments toward his stepfather, his mother, and their incestuous marriage. Horatio and his cohorts arrive and tell the prince about the ghost they have seen. Hamlet vows to observe it himself. (Jump to the text of Act I, Scene ii) Scene iii:The scene is comprised of an exchange among Polonius, his son Laertes and his daughter, Ophelia. The young maiden Ophelia reveals to her father and brother that Prince Hamlet is "madly" in love with her. Both Polonius and Laertes strongly warn her about any romance with a prince of the realm, particularly one who seems to be mentally unbalanced. (Jump to the text of Act I, Scene iii) Scenes iv-v: Back at the walls of the castle, the Ghost of Hamlet's father speaks to his son directly and urges him to follow him to a one-on-one encounter. Hamlet has misgivings, but he obeys and the ghost then confirms that he is, in fact, the dead King. He also discloses that he was the victim of a murder, that Claudius poured poison into his ear while he was asleep.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Movement is as natural and essential to young childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s lives as loving care, rest and nutrition. Movement provides children with an outlet for expression, creativity, and discovery. Through movement, children learn about themselves, their environment, and others. Movement is a stimulus for physical growth and development. The joy of movement is a childÃ¢â¬â¢s expression of an emotional need fulfilled.Ã¢â¬ (Curtis) The movement education teaching model, its historical development, its concepts and core activities will be discussed in this essay. Furthermore, the general objectives of movement education, the detailed objectives within physical education programs and the applicable teaching methods will be outlined and explained. The history of movement education goes as far back as the 1800s. Many people articulated ideas and theories about movement. Three of the most influential people are Francois Delsarte, Liselott Diem, and Rudolph von Laban. Laban is considered by most the true pioneer of movement education. (Karen Weiller Abels) In the early 1900s Laban identified the four cornerstones of movement: weight, space, time, and flow. In the late 70s and early 80s, Stanley, Logsdon and his colleagues distinguished the four major movement concepts, based on Labans discoveries. Stanley, Logsdon and his colleagues classified body, space, effort, and relationship. Parallel to the discovery of the movement concepts, new trends and new teaching models emerged in physical education programs. Movement education faded from the physical education programs because other teaching models became popular and because movement education is an extremely complex teaching model. Today, movement education has returned a nd has planted it... ...sical Education, Recreation and Dance. Movement Education for preschool children. Reston: AAHPERD, 1980. Print. Curtis, Sandra R. The joy of movement in early childhood. New York: Teachers College Press, 1982. Print. George Graham, Shirley Ann Holt/Hale, Melissa Parker. Children Moving, A Reflective Approach to Teaching Physical Education. Vol. 8th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2012. Text. 28 March 2012. Jennifer Wall, Nancy Murray. Children & Movement, Physical Education in the Elementary School. Dubuque: WCB Brown & Benchmark, 1990. Print. Karen Weiller Abels, Jennifer M. Bridges. Teaching Movement Education, Foundation for Active Lifestyles. Human Kinetics, 2010. Print. 16 March 2012. Robert P. Pangrazi, Victor P. Dauer. Movement in Early Childhood and Primary Education. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Company, 1981. Print. 16 March 2012.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The following definition of terms with corresponding examples will help us fully understand the meaning of costs. A cost may be broadly defined as being the sacrifice required to obtain a given object or objective. If costs are to be identified with some relevant unit, such as a department, product line or given amount of service, it is necessary to determine how costs can be expected to behave under different conditions. For example, which costs can be expected to remain constant when there are increases or decreases in the amount of work done?Also, which costs increase as more work is performed? If costs are to be estimated and controlled properly, it is necessary to know whether or not the cost can be expected to change under given conditions and, if so, by what amount. In accounting, fixed costs refer to the costs that do not change in total amount with changes in volume of output or activity over an established or relevant range. Such items as salary of plant of a plant superint endent, depreciation, insurance, taxes, and rent usually remain the same regardless of whether the plant is above or below its normal operating capacity.However, a fixed cost, like any cost, is subject to certain variations. Rent may increase or insurance rates go up, but these changes are caused by factors independent of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s operating level. Fixed costs are sometimes classified as being either committed costs or programmed costs. Management, in making long-range decisions, may commit a company to a cost pattern that extends several years in the future. For example, when a building is acquired, future years have to absorb the depreciation cost and the related property tax, insurance, repairs, and maintenance.These fixed costs are committed costs. Programmed costs, also referred to as managed costs or discretionary costs, are determined as a part of general management policy. A budget for product research and development, for example, may be established each year; or su pervisory salaries are set each year by management decisions. These costs are established at a certain fixed amount, but the amount is determined by management. Variable costs are costs that vary in direct proportion, or in a one-to-one relationship, to changes in productive output or activity.For example, direct material cost is usually a variable cost with each unit manufactured requiring a certain quantity of material. Thus, the materials cost changes in direct proportion to the number of units manufactured. Irrelevant cost is a cost that will not be changed by a decision. Because an irrelevant cost will not be affected, it may be disregarded in the decision-making process. The cost may be variable cost or a fixed cost . The important point is that the cost is not changed by the decision.If the decision involves the production of more units of product, variable are increased and are not irrelevant costs. On the other hand, if no change in productive output or hours of activity is involved in the decision, the variable cost may not be affected, in which case they are disregarded with respect to the decision. Costs can also be classified as being direct or indirect with respect to an activity, a department, or a product. The distinction depends upon whether or not the cost can be identified with the activity or other relevant unit without allocation.A cost such as the plant superintendentÃ¢â¬â¢s salary can be readily identified with the plant and hence is a direct cost of the plant. However, it is an indirect cost of any department within the plant or of any line of product manufactured. The plant superintendentÃ¢â¬â¢s salary cannot be identified with any unit within the plant except by allocation. A sunk cost is a cost that has already been incurred in the past whose total will not be affected by any decision made now or in the future.Example, an individual may regret having made a purchase but, after the purchase have been made, cannot avoid the cost by taking subsequent action. Perhaps the property can be sold, in which case the cost of the property is matched against the proceeds from the sale in the determination of gain or loss. Or the person may decide to keep the property, in which case the cost is matched against revenue over the time that it is used in operations. In any event, the cost has been incurred and cannot be avoided.It is sunk cost with respect to present and future decisions. Another important aspect of cost to be considered is the distinction between cost that can be controlled by a given person and those that cannot be controlled by that person. Cost are incurred upon the authorization of some member of the management group. If a manager is responsible for a given cost, that cost is said to be controllable with respect to that person. If the manager does not authorize that cost, the cost is uncontrollable with respect to that manager.For example, top management can increase or decrease executive salaries and c an initiate or abandon major projects. At intermediate or at lower management levels, such cost are beyond their authority and are uncontrollable. Costs that can be authorized at a certain managerial level are said to be controllable at that level. REFERENCES : Blocher, EÃ¢â¬ ¦ et al. (2005). Cost Management: A strategic emphasis. Boston : Mcgraw-Hill/ Irwin. Edmonds TÃ¢â¬ ¦et al. (2006). Fundamental managerial accounting concepts. (3rd ed). New York: Mcgraw-Hill/ Irwin.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Languages define a culture itself and every language in the world expresses the heart and spirit of people who speak it. Languages explain the human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication. Everyone has a language that they convey and pursue in everyday activities. Gloria Anzaldua, author of Ã¢â¬Å"How to Tame a Wild TongueÃ¢â¬ , is a Mexican American woman who takes great pride in her culture, but struggles to keep the form of Spanish called, Ã¢â¬Å"Chicano SpanishÃ¢â¬ alive. Born and raised in South Texas, Anzaldua will always have Mexican culture in her blood, but living in such a strict American society, she feels pressured to choose to speak either an English that American society would appreciate, or Castilian that the Mexican society would agree with. Growing up, Anzaldua slowly realized that others mistreated her because her language was poor. She expresses herself in the text through her personal experiences, struggles, and her gender role with in her language and culture. Everyone has a specific role that they associate with when it comes to speaking different languages. Anzaldua describes this by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"My Ã¢â¬ËhomeÃ¢â¬â¢ tongues are the languages I speak with my sister and brothers, with my friendsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"TongueÃ¢â¬ 36). With Chicano Spanish and Tex-Mex as some of the most dependent languages for her, she also speaks a total of five different languages that she picked up from school, reading literature, and different cultures. She feels most confident when she speaks in her native tongue, without the distraction of adjusting to another language. She knows how to speak many languages, but is always having to speak differently according to different cultures. As time went on, the Chicano language grew rapidly, and now includes elements from seven different languages, such as Standard English, Working class and slang English, Standard Spanish, Standard Mexican Spanish, North Mexican Spanish dialect, Chicano Spanish, and Tex-Mex. Eventually, the Chicanos started to believe they needed a language that could be identified as their own. According to Anzaldua, Chicanos are Ã¢â¬Å"complex, heterogeneousÃ people,Ã¢â¬ and because of that, they speak many different languages (Ã¢â¬Å"TongueÃ¢â¬ , 36). Is the way we speak always how others you want to interpret it? Growing up, Chicanos believed they spoke poor Spanish. They would feel uncomfortable talking to others because mainstream American culture discouraged the use of their language. She describes the discrimination, Ã¢â¬Å"It is illegitimate, a bastard language. And because we internalize how our language has been used against us by dominant culture, we use our language differences against each otherÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"TongueÃ¢â¬ , 38). Therefore, Chicanos felt obligated to use their own dominant language because they were proud of their culture. In this way, Anzaldua takes pride in herself and the language she speaks. She expresses this pride by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"So, if you want to really hurt me, talk badly about my language. Ethnic identity is twin to linguistic identity- I am my languageÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"TongueÃ¢â¬ , 39). Anzaldua believes that even if you live in a country where the language you speak is not accepted, still continue to use your native tongue because it defines who you are as a person. Ã¢â¬Å"I will no longer be made to feel ashamed of existing. I will have my voice: Indian, Spanish, white. I will have my serpentÃ¢â¬â¢s tongue- my womanÃ¢â¬â¢s voice, my sexual voice, my poetÃ¢â¬â¢s voice. I will overcome the tradition of silenceÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"TongueÃ¢â¬ 40). Aristotle classifies language by the use of persuasive arguments and using the three different types of persuasive appeals (pathos, logos, and ethos) (Aristotle 489). Whereas Anzaldua believes there are no right or wrong way to use language. Aristotle view of language is more persuasion whereas AnzalduaÃ¢â¬â¢s view is more social and applies more to modern day speaking. Many have the difficulties of speaking certain languages, but imagine those not being able to speak words because of the inability to even hear the words being spoken. This is why her view is more relevant to people today. Anzaldua expresses herself throughout her life of having a challenging time speaking her language; similarly, I Jordan Kohl, believe that language is a special device that s hould not be taken for granted. As someone who has sensorineural hearing loss, I know that language can have many complications. If you cannot hear, you cannot speak. Pronouncing words or phrases beginning with certain letters such as a, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢SÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"WÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"TÃ¢â¬ , has taken numerous years for me to conquer. AnzalduaÃ¢â¬â¢s way of learning new languages was through listening at school, radio, TV, and reading newspapersÃ and magazines; mine was through reading lips, speech therapy, wearing hearing aids, and various hearing tests. While AnzalduaÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences may have had a struggle to maintain a positive outlook on her language conflicts, mine was to keep track of listening to other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s words. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s view of persuasive arguments obviously does not apply to my life as much as her does. How we communicate with each other is the way we connect. Anzaldua illustrates that the language we speak should not isolate people from each other. Be proud of the language you speak, even if others do not agree. I myself believe that any language should be honored because some cannot even hear the words. AnzalduaÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective has helped people have a better understanding of the importance being appreciative of languages. Language cannot be separated from culture as an independent aspect because any language is a culture itself. Work Cited Anzaldua, Gloria. Ã¢â¬Å"How to Tame a Wild Tongue.Ã¢â¬ Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestize (2007) 33-44. Print. Aristotle. Ã¢â¬Å"RhetoricÃ¢â¬ 489-501 Print.
Executive Summary 1. 0 Executive Summary Puddle Jumpers Airlines, Inc. is a new consumer airline in its formative stages. It is being organized to take advantage of a specific gap in the short-haul domestic travel market. The gap exists in low cost service out of Anytown, U. S. A. The gap in the availability of low cost service in and out of the Anytown hub coupled with the demand for passenger travel on selected routes from Anytown indicates that a new entrant airline could be expected to capture a significant portion of current air travel business at that hub. The management of Puddle Jumpers is experienced in airline start-ups. Previously management grew Private Jet Airlines from a single Boeing 727 to a fleet of 16 MD80 series aircraft. Revenues grew to $130 million in a two year period from 1992 through 1993. Our research and projections indicate that air travel to and from Anytown is sufficient to provide a new carrier with revenues of $110 million dollars in its first full year of operations, utilizing six aircraft and selected short-haul routes. These sales figures are based upon load factors of only 55% in year one. Second year revenues are expected to exceed $216 million dollars with additional aircraft and expanded routes. Load factors for year two are 62%. The Puddle Jumpers plan has the potential for a more rapid ramp-up than was the case with Private Jet due to the nature of the routes and the demand for travel currently in the targeted markets served. In short, the frequency of flights needed to serve Puddle JumpersÃ¢â¬â¢s target market exceeds the demand that dictated Private JetÃ¢â¬â¢s growth. These sales levels will produce net profit of just over $1 million in the first operational year and $21. 4 million dollars in flight year two. Profits in year one will be 1% of sales and will improve to 10% of sales with the economies gained in year two. The over-all operational long term profit target will be 16% of sales as net profit in years three, four, and five. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s long term plan is part of the due diligence package. The first operational year is actually fiscal year two in this plan. The first year of formative operations will burn cash until revenue can commence. This is due to the organizational and regulatory obligations of a new air carrier. Investment activity is needed to handle the expenses of this phase of the business. The following chart illustrates the over-all highlights of our business plan over the first three years. Gross Margin here is approximately 87% of sales since the only costs included in this calculation are travel agent commissions, credit card discounts, and federal excise taxes. Travel agent commissions are calculated on 30% of sales even though management feels the actual number will not exceed 10% of sales. NOTE: For display purposes in this sample plan, numerical values in tables and charts are shown in thousands (000Ã¢â¬â¢s). Highlights 1. 1 Objectives The Company has the following objectives: 1. To obtain required D. O. T. and F. A. A. certifications on or before March 1, 1997. 2. To commence revenue service on or before July 1, 1997. 3. To raise sufficient Ã¢â¬Å"seedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"bridgeÃ¢â¬ capital in a timely fashion to financially enable these objectives. 4. To commence operations with two McDonnell-Douglas MD-80 series aircraft in month one, four by end of month four, and six by end of month six. 5. To add one aircraft per month during year two for a total of 18 at year two end. 1. 2 Mission Puddle Jumpers International Airlines, Inc. has a mission to provide safe, efficient, low-cost consumer air travel service. Our service will emphasize safety as its highest priority. We will operate the newest and best maintained aircraft available. We will never skimp on maintenance in any fashion whatsoever. We will strive to operate our flights on time. We will provide friendly and courteous Ã¢â¬Å"no frillÃ¢â¬ service. 1. 3 Keys to Success The keys to success are: Obtaining the required governmental approvals. Securing financing. Experienced management. (Already in place). Marketing; either dealing with channel problems and barriers to entry; or solving problems with major advertising and promotion budgets. Targeted market share must be achieved even amidst expected competition. Product quality. Always with safety foremost. Services delivered on time, costs controlled, marketing budgets managed. There is a temptation to fix on growth at the expense of profits. Also, rapid growth will be curtailed in order to keep maintenance standards both strict and measurable. Cost control. The over-all cost per ASM (available seat mile) is pegged at 7. 0 cents or less in 1996 dollars. This ASM factor places Puddle Jumpers in a grouping of the lowest four in the airline industry within the short-haul market. (US Air, the dominate carrier in the Anytown market, averages 12. 0 cents per ASM by comparison). The only three airlines with lower operating costs also operate older and less reliable equipment, and even then the lowest short-haul cost in the airline industry is currently Southwest at 6. 43 cents per ASM. Company Summary 2. 0 Company Summary Puddle Jumpers International Airlines is being formed in July, 1996 as a South State Corporation. Its offices will be in Anytown, Georgia. The founder of Puddle Jumpers is Kenneth D. Smith. Mr. Smith has extensive experience in consumer aviation. His bio as well as the backgrounds of all the members of Puddle JumpersÃ¢â¬â¢s management team are enclosed herein. 2. 1 Company Ownership Puddle Jumpers International Airlines, Inc. will authorize 20,000,000 shares of common stock. 1,000,000 shares are to be set aside as founderÃ¢â¬â¢s stock to be divided among key management personnel. It is also expected that management stock options will be made available to key management personnel after operations commence. It is expected that founders stock plus option stock will not total more than 15% of authorized shares. Initial Ã¢â¬Å"seedÃ¢â¬ capital is to be attracted via a convertible debenture sold by Private Placement. This round of funding will have premium conversion privileges vs. later rounds and Ã¢â¬Å"bridgeÃ¢â¬ capital.